Global Hurricane Trends Print E-mail
Written by Staff   
Thursday, 16 January 2014 17:41

Climate models have long suggested that the intensity and frequency of hurricanes or tropical cyclones (TCs) may be significantly increased in response to global warming, as noted by Free et al. (2004), who have written that "increases in hurricane intensity are expected to result from increases in sea surface temperature and decreases in tropopause-level temperature accompanying greenhouse warming," citing in support of this statement the studies of Emanuel (1987), Henderson-Sellers et al. (1998) and Knutson et al. (1998). Before accepting this climate-model-based projection, however, it is important to see what the world of nature has to say about the issue.



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Water Use Efficiency of Trees Print E-mail
Written by Staff   
Tuesday, 14 January 2014 20:17

The effect of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations on the water-use efficiencies of trees is clearly positive, having been documented in a number of different single-species studies of longleaf pine (Runion et al., 19991), red oak (Anderson and Tomlinson, 19982), scrub oak (Lodge et al., 20013), silver birch (Rey and Jarvis, 19984), beech (Bucher-Wallin et al., 20005; Egli et al., 19986), sweetgum (Gunderson et al., 20027; Wullschleger and Norby, 20018) and spruce (Roberntz and Stockfors, 19989). Likewise, in a multi-species study performed by Tjoelker et al. (1998)10, seedlings of quaking aspen, paper birch, tamarack, black spruce and jack pine, which were grown at 580 ppm CO2 for three months, displayed water-use efficiencies that were 40 to 80% larger than those exhibited by their respective controls grown at 370 ppm CO2.

Similar results have also been obtained when trees were exposed to different environmental stresses. In a study conducted by Centritto et al. (1999)11, for example, cherry seedlings grown at twice-ambient levels of atmospheric CO2 displayed water-use efficiencies that were 50% greater than their ambient controls, regardless of soil moisture status. And in the study of Wayne et al. (1998)12, yellow birch seedlings grown at 800 ppm CO2 had water-use efficiencies that were 52 and 94% greater than their respective controls, while simultaneously subjected to uncharacteristically low and high air temperature regimes, respectively.



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Game Over! The IPCC Quietly Concedes Defeat Print E-mail
Written by Christopher Monckton of Brenchley   
Sunday, 05 January 2014 12:45

You couldn’t make it up. A Russian “Antarctic research vessel” carrying not diligent scientific researchers but 74 taxpayer-funded climate extremists on a junket to help them make up headlines about sea ice melting because of “global warming” finds itself stuck in – er – sea ice. And sea ice in high summer at that. The extremists, as so often happens, had believed their own propaganda. They had believed Al Gore. They had believed, poor saps, that Antarctica was warming and melting. It isn’t.



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Potential Inaccuracies of Assessing Temperature Trends Print E-mail
Written by Staff   
Friday, 03 January 2014 18:28

Over the years, a large number of potential problems associated with various ways of assessing the temperatures of diverse types of land cover have been identified; and several of them are briefly described, with an emphasis on demonstrating the great difficulty of obtaining various surface-specific sets of annual near-surface air temperature which - when combined for the earth as a whole - yield a set of yearly mean values that accurately represents the mean near-surface thermal history of the planet well enough to determine whether or not the earth may be warming at the rate that is typically predicted by climate model assessments of the greenhouse effect of the CO2 emitted to the atmosphere as a consequence of mankind's utilization of fossil fuels, such as coal, gas and oil.



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Historical Global Temperature Trends Print E-mail
Written by Staff   
Sunday, 29 December 2013 16:34

It has been claimed that the last decade of the 20th century was the warmest of the past hundred years and possibly the warmest of the entire past millennium (Mann et al., 1998, 1999). It has also been claimed that this observation is a cause for much concern, because the temperatures in question are supposedly so unprecedented. In fact, those who would have us believe that these supposedly high air temperatures are the result of anthropogenic CO2 emissions resulting from the burning of fossil fuels contend that the near-surface air temperature of the planet is currently so high that we must radically reformulate the energetic basis of the entire industrialized world in order to avoid a host of unwanted climatic consequences. But is this climatic characterization correct? ... and is its adherents' call to action truly prudent?



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Can Migrating Plants Move Fast Enough to Avoid Projected Extinctions from Global Warming? Print E-mail
Written by Staff   
Thursday, 19 December 2013 18:05

One of the great horror stories associated with predictions of CO2-induced global warming is that the warming will be so fast and furious that many species of plants will not be able to migrate towards cooler regions - poleward in latitude, or upward in elevation - at rates that are rapid enough to avoid extinction. This claim may sound logical enough ... but is it true?



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Biospheric Productivity of China Deserts Print E-mail
Written by Staff   
Wednesday, 11 December 2013 18:07

Climate alarmists are continually warning about the potentially-catastrophic negative consequences of CO2-induced global warming, which they contend will wreak havoc with Earth's natural and agro-ecosystems. In this summary we thus review how deserts have fared throughout China in response to rising air temperatures and atmospheric CO2 concentrations, which climate alarmists characterize as unprecedented over thousands of years (in the case of temperature) to millions of years (in the case of CO2 concentration).



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Historical Temperature Trends in Asia Print E-mail
Written by Staff   
Wednesday, 04 December 2013 00:00

At a time when we're told that the world is hotter than it's been over the past thousand or more years, this information is not exactly what one would expect to hear, unless, of course, the claim is wrong. And, in fact, that is what it appears to be; for a number of real-world (as opposed to climate-model) studies provide evidence that Asian temperatures during the first half of the past century and earlier were sometimes much warmer than they have been over the past couple of decades. And some of them suggest that temperature trends of the past few decades have actually been negative, rather than positive.



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Growth Response of Aspen Trees to Elevated Carbon Dioxide and Ozone Print E-mail
Written by Staff   
Tuesday, 03 December 2013 00:00

Karnosky et al. (1999)-1 described how they had grown O3-sensitive and O3-tolerant aspen clones in 30-m diameter plots at the Aspen FACE site near Rhinelander, Wisconsin, USA, where the young trees were maintained at atmospheric CO2 concentrations of either 360 or 560 ppm either with or without exposure to elevated O3 (1.5 times the ambient ozone concentration). And there, after one year of growth at ambient CO2, they determined that the elevated O3 had caused visible injury to leaves of both types of aspen, with the average percent damage in O3-sensitive clones being more than three times as great as that observed in O3-tolerant clones (55% vs. 17%, respectively). In combination with elevated CO2, however, the O3-induced damage to the leaves of these same clones was only 38% and 3%, respectively. And so they learned that elevated CO2 prevented much of the foliar damage that would otherwise have been induced by the high O3 concentrations.



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Grand Minimum of the Total Solar Irradiance Leads to the Little Ice Age Print E-mail
Written by Habibullo Abdussamatov   
Monday, 25 November 2013 18:02

Significant climate variations during the past 7.5 millennia indicate that bicentennial quasi-periodic TSI variations define a corresponding cyclic mechanism of climatic changes from global warmings to Little Ice Ages and set the timescales of practically all physical processes taking place in the Sun-Earth system. Quasi-bicentennial cyclic variations of the TSI entering the Earth’s upper atmosphere are the main fundamental cause of corresponding alternations of climate variations. At the same time, more long-term variations of the annual average of the TSI due to changes in the shape of the Earth's orbit, inclination of the Earth's axis relative to its orbital plane, and precession, known as the astronomical Milankovitch cycles, together with the subsequent feedback effects, lead to the Big Glacial Periods (with the period of about 100,000 years).



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Modern Growth Trends of Earth's Forests Print E-mail
Written by Staff   
Wednesday, 20 November 2013 00:00

How well have earth's forests been faring during the modern era? This question was asked a few years ago by five researchers (Lapenis et al., 2005[1]), who sought the answer by analyzing trends in forest biomass in all 28 ecoregions covering the Russian territory, based on data collected from 1953 to 2002 within 3196 sample plots comprised of about 50,000 entries, which database, in their words, "contains all available archived and published data." And in doing so, they discovered that over the period 1961-1998, "aboveground wood, roots, and green parts increased by 4%, 21%, and 33%, respectively," such that "the total carbon density of the living biomass stock of the Russian forests increased by ~9% from 4.08 to 4.44 kg C m-2." In addition, they report there was an "increase in the area of the Russian forests (from 695.5 x 1010 m2 in 1961 to 774.2 x 1010 m2 in 1998)," which equates to an increase of about 11%.



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Natural and Anthropogenic Perturbations in Cloud Albedo Print E-mail
Written by Staff   
Thursday, 14 November 2013 22:20

Understanding how clouds respond to anthropogenic-induced perturbations of our planet's atmosphere is of paramount importance in determining the impact of the ongoing rise in the air's CO2 content on global climate; for as Charlson et al. (2001) have noted, "man-made aerosols have a strong influence on cloud albedo, with a global mean forcing estimated to be of the same order (but opposite in sign) as that of greenhouse gases." Thus, this summary presents a brief review of a number of scientific papers that address this crucial issue.



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Plant Productivity: Growth Response to C02 When Coupled with Ozone Print E-mail
Written by Staff   
Wednesday, 06 November 2013 19:12

Ozone (O3) is the primary air pollutant responsible for visible foliar injury and reduced growth in trees the world over. Most studies of the subject suggest it gains entrance to leaves through their stomata, whereupon it interferes with the process of photosynthesis and thereby reduces plant productivity. The global significance of the phenomenon was described in some detail by Fowler et al. (1999), who estimated O3 to have been negatively impacting a full quarter of earth's forests at the close of the 20th century, and who calculated it to have the potential to negatively impact fully one-half of the planet's forests by 2100.



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Correlation Does Not Equal Causation and Causes Do Not Equal Effects Print E-mail
Written by Lee Gerhard   
Tuesday, 05 November 2013 18:22

Correlation is the easiest method to assign causation for an event, even though it is the least valid method. Take an automobile race, for instance. The last four races were won by blue cars. Blue cars win races. That is an example of correlation driving causation. In reality, Vettel was driving the blue car. He just won the Grand Prix championship for 2013. The color of the car had nothing to do with winning the races. There are frequent correlations that do not identify the causes of events, but politics and media jump on the simplest correlations because they do not require extensive research nor complex analysis.



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Historical Temperature Trends in Antarctica Print E-mail
Written by Staff   
Wednesday, 30 October 2013 11:15

From the birth and death of ice ages to the decadal meanderings of modern-day weather patterns, studies of Antarctica bear witness to the fact that the atmosphere's CO2 concentration is not a major player in bringing about significant changes in earth's climate; and in what follows, the case for this proposition is presented in the form of brief reviews of pertinent studies directed, first of all, at glacial periods, then the singular Holocene, and finally the past few decades.



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Medieval Warm Period and the World's Oceans Print E-mail
Written by Staff   
Tuesday, 29 October 2013 11:17

Keigwin (1996) introduced his classic paleoclimatic study of the northern Sargasso Sea by stating that "it is important to document natural climate variability in order to understand the effects of anthropogenic forcing." And, therefore, working with two subcores of a sediment box core retrieved from 33°41.6'N, 57°36.7'W of the undulating plateau of the northeast Bermuda Rise, he measured the oxygen isotope ratios (?18O) of the white variety of the planktonic foraminifera Globigerinoides ruber, which lives year-round in the upper 25 meters of the northern Sargasso Sea and has a relatively constant annual mass flux and shell flux to the sediments. Calibrating these data against temperature and salinity data obtained at Ocean Station "S" (32°N, 62°30'W) over the prior 42 years, he first determined that "temperature accounts for about two-thirds of the isotopic signal, whereas salinity accounts for one-third." And based on these results, he calculated sea surface temperatures (SSTs) of the prior three millennia, after which he "stacked the temperature proxy data from the two subcores by averaging results in 50-year bins," obtaining the results below.



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The Positive Externalities of Carbon Dioxide Print E-mail
Written by Craig D. Idso, Ph. D.   
Monday, 21 October 2013 00:00

Advancements in technology and scientific expertise that accompanied the Industrial Revolution initiated a great transformation within the global enterprise of agriculture. More efficient machinery and improved plant cultivars, for example, paved the way toward higher crop yields and increased global food production. And with the ever-burgeoning population of the planet, the increase in food production was a welcomed societal benefit. But what remained largely unknown to society at that time, was the birth of an ancillary aid to agriculture that would confer great benefits upon future inhabitants of the globe in the decades and centuries to come. The source of that aid: atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2).



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Greening of the Earth in Europe Print E-mail
Written by Staff   
Wednesday, 16 October 2013 00:00

Among the many climate-alarmist fears of CO2-induced global warming is the concern that the productivity of the biosphere will decline if global temperatures rise to the extent predicted by computer models. Because of such concern, several researchers have investigated the relationship between temperature, atmospheric CO2, and biospheric productivity across a range of spatial and temporal scales. In this review we examine what has been learned about the subject for locations in Europe.



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Medieval Warm Period in Other Asian Countries (Not including China, Russian or Japan) Print E-mail
Written by Staff   
Wednesday, 09 October 2013 10:39

Climate alarmists have long contended that the Medieval Warm Period (MWP) was not a worldwide phenomenon, primarily because that reality would challenge another of their major claims, i.e., that late 20th-century temperatures were the warmest of the past millennium or more. Thus, it is important to know what has been learned about this subject in different parts of the world; and in this summary attention is focused on Asian countries other than China, Russia and Japan, which are treated individually in other MWP Summaries.



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The Real Climate Print E-mail
Written by Vincent Gray   
Wednesday, 25 September 2013 07:15

The Climate is a heat engine. Energy input is mainly short wave radiation from the sun. Energy output is mainly long wave radiation from every surface on the earth and from every level in the atmosphere, including clouds and aerosols.



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