Originals
Interactive Effects of C02 and Ozone on Birch Trees Print E-mail
Written by Staff   
Friday, 10 April 2015 00:00

Trees grown in CO2-enriched air nearly always exhibit increased rates of photosynthesis and biomass production, while trees grown in ozone (O3)-enriched air tend to experience the opposite effects. So what happens when both of these trace constituents of the atmosphere increase together? This question is addressed in the present summary with respect to birch trees.



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Effects of Ocean Acidification on Marine Crustaceans Print E-mail
Written by Staff   
Wednesday, 01 April 2015 19:54

As the air’s CO2 content rises in response to ever-increasing anthropogenic CO2 emissions, and as more and more carbon dioxide therefore dissolves in the surface waters of the world’s oceans, theoretical reasoning suggests the pH values of the planet’s oceanic waters should be gradually dropping. The IPCC and others postulate that this chain of events, commonly referred to as ocean acidification, will cause great harm -- and possibly death -- to marine life in the decades and centuries to come. However, as ever more pertinent evidence accumulates, a much more optimistic viewpoint is emerging. Such optimism is the focus of this summary examining the effects of ocean acidification on crustaceans.



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Effects of Ocean Acidification on Marine Bivalves Print E-mail
Written by Staff   
Wednesday, 18 March 2015 00:17

As the air's CO2 content rises in response to ever-increasing anthropogenic CO2 emissions, and as more and more carbon dioxide therefore dissolves in the surface waters of the world's oceans, theoretical reasoning suggests the pH values of the planet's oceanic waters should be gradually dropping. The IPCC and others postulate that this chain of events, commonly referred to as ocean acidification, will cause great harm -- and possibly death -- to marine life in the decades and centuries to come. However, as ever more pertinent evidence accumulates, a much more optimistic viewpoint is emerging. Such optimism is the focus of this summary examining the effects of ocean acidification on bivalves.



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Effects of Ocean Acidification on Marine Bacteria Print E-mail
Written by Staff   
Wednesday, 11 March 2015 00:00

Cyanobacteria-also known as blue-green algae, blue-green bacteria or Cyanophyta (the smallest of which, less than two micrometers in diameter, are typically referred to as picocyanobacteria)- obtain their energy through the process of photosynthesis and are thus important primary producers in many areas of the world’s oceans, as well as significant components of the marine nitrogen cycle. This summary briefly reviews the results of studies that indicate how they may be affected by ocean acidification in a CO2-enriched world of the future, several of which findings challenge alarming negative projections of the IPCC.



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Observed Climate Change and the Negligible Global Effect of Greenhouse-gas Emission Limits in the State of Utah Print E-mail
Written by Robert Ferguson   
Monday, 02 March 2015 00:00

In this report, we review the long-term climate history of Utah and find little in the way of evidence that the greenhouse gas build-up in the atmosphere has much altered Utah’s climate. While statewide average temperatures have generally appeared to have risen in Utah over the past 100 years, much of this rise can be attributed to the timing of decadal oscillations of sea surface temperature patterns in the Pacific Ocean. Further, there is evidence that the state’s temperature record may contain non-climatic influences—such as land use changes, instrument changes, and improper instrument siting—which together add a warming bias to the state’s long-term temperature history, making it seem like the temperature has been increasing more than it actually has been.  In any case, there has been no overall temperature rise during the past 20 years.



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Experimental Artifacts of Free-Air-C02-Enrichment (FACE) Studies Print E-mail
Written by Staff   
Tuesday, 24 February 2015 09:21

In a provocative paper they entitled "Food for Thought: Lower-Than-Expected Crop Yield Stimulation with Rising CO2 Concentrations," Long et al. (2006)1 suggested that future increases in crop production caused by the fertilization effect of the atmosphere's rising CO2 concentration may be only half as large as what had long been believed would be the case, due to confounding influences they claimed were inherent in all experimental assessments of the growth-promoting effects of atmospheric CO2 enrichment except those employing Free-Air CO2- Enrichment or FACE technology. Quite to the contrary, however, there is a strong possibility that just the opposite could well be true, i.e., that future increases in crop production caused by the aerial fertilization effect of the atmosphere's rising CO2 concentration may well be twice as large as what FACE experiments suggest.



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The Extinction Risk for Stationary Plants Print E-mail
Written by Staff   
Saturday, 14 February 2015 11:11

In addition to migrating to more suitable locations, Earth’s plants have other ways of successfully responding to various pressures that might otherwise lead to their extinction. The “acid test” for any extinction hypothesis is to examine what appears to be happening - or what appears to actually have happened - in the real world, which is what is done here with respect to studies of plants that are fighting to survive under experimental settings or real-world locations where they periodically face various threats to their survival.



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Benefits of Atmospheric C02 Enrichment on Strawberries Print E-mail
Written by Staff   
Friday, 06 February 2015 00:00

Nearly all agricultural plants benefit from increases in the air's CO2 content and strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) is no exception.



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Forest Growth Responses to Increasing Temperatures Print E-mail
Written by Staff   
Thursday, 29 January 2015 00:00

It has been claimed that CO2-induced global warming will be so great and so rapid that many of Earth’s trees will not be able to migrate towards cooler regions (poleward in latitude or upward in altitude) rapidly enough to avoid extinction (Woodwell, 1989; Overpeck et al., 1991; Dobson, 1992; Root and Schneider, 1993; Dyer, 1995). This prediction is based on the assumption that tree growth rates rise from zero at the cold limit of their natural ranges (their northern boundaries in the Northern Hemisphere) to a broad maximum, after which they decline to zero at the warm limits of their natural ranges (their southern boundaries in the Northern Hemisphere). Loehle (1998)1, however, convincingly demonstrated that this assumption is only half correct: it properly describes tree growth dynamics near a Northern Hemispheric forest’s northern boundary; but it is an inaccurate representation of tree growth dynamics near such a forest’s southern boundary.



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Problems with Model Predictions of Species Extinctions Print E-mail
Written by Staff   
Friday, 16 January 2015 00:00

The world's climate alarmists contend that CO2-induced global warming will lead to numerous extinctions of both plants and animals. Initially, this claim was based solely on models of how they thought Earth's climate behaved in response to increases in various atmospheric greenhouse gases, contending that the increases in temperature predicted to result from projected increases in the air's CO2 content would be so great and occur so rapidly that many species would not be able to migrate either poleward in latitude or upward in elevation rapidly enough to avoid extinction in their attempts to find suitable (i.e., cooler) living conditions.



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