Originals
Interactive Effects of C02 and Salinity on Plants Print E-mail
Written by Staff   
Monday, 20 July 2015 19:06

In agricultural enterprises the buildup of soil salinity from repeated irrigations can sometimes reduce crop yields. Similarly, in unmanaged ecosystems where exposure to brackish or salty water is commonplace, saline soils can induce growth stresses in plants that are not naturally adapted to coping with this problem. Consequently, it is important to understand how rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations may interact with soil salinity to affect plant growth; and in the paragraphs that follow, we summarize the results of a number of experiments that were designed to obtain knowledge pertinent to this endeavor.



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Atmospheric C02 Enrichment: Boon or Bane of the Biosphere? Print E-mail
Written by Staff   
Wednesday, 01 July 2015 10:45

Is the human-induced increase in the atmosphere’s carbon dioxide concentration good or bad for the earth and its inhabitants? A number of scientists who base their opinions primarily on the predictions of climate models vociferously claim that it’s bad. Other scientists, who base their opinions primarily on real-world weather measurements and historical proxy temperature reconstructions, along with the known positive effects of atmospheric CO2 enrichment on terrestrial plant growth and development, as well as its benign effects on aquatic plants and animals, are equally adamant that it’s good.



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Climate Model Inadequacies (Sea Ice) Print E-mail
Written by Staff   
Friday, 26 June 2015 04:38

Near the start of the current century, Holland (2001)1 wrote that with respect to contemporary state-of-the-art global climate models, "some physical processes are absent from the models," while noting that in light of the coarse-resolution grids employed by the models, "some physical processes are ill resolved" and that others are actually "missing from the simulations," which facts led him to question, as he put it, "whether the simulations obtained from such models are in fact physically meaningful." And so it was that he thus went on to conduct his own analysis of the subject, which he designed to determine the difference in model evolution of sea ice cover using a relatively coarse-resolution grid verses a fine-resolution grid, with specific emphasis placed on the presence and treatment of a mesoscale ocean eddy and its influence on sea ice cover.



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Cllimate Model Inadequacies Print E-mail
Written by Staff   
Monday, 22 June 2015 17:45

Near the start of the current century, Holland (2001)1 wrote that with respect to contemporary state-of-the-art global climate models, "some physical processes are absent from the models," while noting that in light of the coarse-resolution grids employed by the models, "some physical processes are ill resolved" and that others are actually "missing from the simulations," which facts led him to question, as he put it, "whether the simulations obtained from such models are in fact physically meaningful." And so it was that he thus went on to conduct his own analysis of the subject, which he designed to determine the difference in model evolution of sea ice cover using a relatively coarse-resolution grid verses a fine-resolution grid, with specific emphasis placed on the presence and treatment of a mesoscale ocean eddy and its influence on sea ice cover.



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A C02-Enriched World of Worms Print E-mail
Written by Staff   
Saturday, 30 May 2015 15:21

"Earthworms," in the words of Edwards (1988), "play a major role in improving and maintaining the fertility, structure, aeration and drainage of agricultural soils." As noted by Sharpley et al. (1988), for example, "by ingestion and digestion of plant residue and subsequent egestion of cast material, earthworms can redistribute nutrients in a soil and enhance enzyme activity, thereby increasing plant availability of both soil and plant residue nutrients," as others have also demonstrated.



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Mammals in a C02-Enriched and Warmer World Print E-mail
Written by Staff   
Thursday, 30 April 2015 15:52

We begin this brief analysis of the effects of global warming and atmospheric CO2 enrichment on Earth's mammals with a review of the study of Norment et al. (1999)1, who summarized and compared the results of many surveys of mammal populations observed along the Thelon River and its tributaries in the Canadian Northwest Territories from the 1920s through much of the 1990s.



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Climate Model Inadequacies of Earth's Radiative Budget Print E-mail
Written by Staff   
Tuesday, 21 April 2015 16:12

One of the most challenging and important problems facing today's general circulation models of the atmosphere is how to accurately simulate the physics of earth's radiative energy balance. Of this task, Harries (2000)1 wrote that "progress is excellent, on-going research is fascinating, but we have still a great deal to understand about the physics of climate.



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Interactive Effects of C02 and Ozone on Birch Trees Print E-mail
Written by Staff   
Friday, 10 April 2015 00:00

Trees grown in CO2-enriched air nearly always exhibit increased rates of photosynthesis and biomass production, while trees grown in ozone (O3)-enriched air tend to experience the opposite effects. So what happens when both of these trace constituents of the atmosphere increase together? This question is addressed in the present summary with respect to birch trees.



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Effects of Ocean Acidification on Marine Crustaceans Print E-mail
Written by Staff   
Wednesday, 01 April 2015 19:54

As the air’s CO2 content rises in response to ever-increasing anthropogenic CO2 emissions, and as more and more carbon dioxide therefore dissolves in the surface waters of the world’s oceans, theoretical reasoning suggests the pH values of the planet’s oceanic waters should be gradually dropping. The IPCC and others postulate that this chain of events, commonly referred to as ocean acidification, will cause great harm -- and possibly death -- to marine life in the decades and centuries to come. However, as ever more pertinent evidence accumulates, a much more optimistic viewpoint is emerging. Such optimism is the focus of this summary examining the effects of ocean acidification on crustaceans.



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Effects of Ocean Acidification on Marine Bivalves Print E-mail
Written by Staff   
Wednesday, 18 March 2015 00:17

As the air's CO2 content rises in response to ever-increasing anthropogenic CO2 emissions, and as more and more carbon dioxide therefore dissolves in the surface waters of the world's oceans, theoretical reasoning suggests the pH values of the planet's oceanic waters should be gradually dropping. The IPCC and others postulate that this chain of events, commonly referred to as ocean acidification, will cause great harm -- and possibly death -- to marine life in the decades and centuries to come. However, as ever more pertinent evidence accumulates, a much more optimistic viewpoint is emerging. Such optimism is the focus of this summary examining the effects of ocean acidification on bivalves.



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