Originals
Response of Various Marine Animals to Ocean Acidification and Warming Print E-mail
Written by Staff   
Saturday, 06 December 2014 18:43

Most of the ocean acidification research conducted to date has focused solely on the biological impacts of declining seawater pH. Few studies have investigated the interactive effects of ocean acidification and temperature. This summary examines what has been learned in several such studies of various marine organisms that challenge the alarming and negative projections of the IPCC on the matter.



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FACE Experiments and Grassland Species Print E-mail
Written by Staff   
Saturday, 06 December 2014 18:25

In atmospheric CO2 enrichment experiments, nearly all plants almost always exhibit increases in photosynthetic rates and biomass production when environmental conditions are optimal for growth. Even when conditions are less than favorable (low soil moisture, poor soil fertility, high soil salinity, high air temperature), many plants still exhibit a CO2-induced growth enhancement; and that relative or percentage enhancement is sometimes (more often than not, in fact) greater than what it is under ideal growing conditions. It is sometimes suggested, however, that results obtained from CO2-enrichment experiments conducted in growth cabinets, greenhouses and other enclosures may not reflect real-world plant responses to atmospheric CO2 enrichment due to perturbations in microclimate caused by the enclosures. Thus, Free-Air CO2 Enrichment or FACE technology was developed as a means to enrich the air with CO2 around vegetation while having minimal effects on the surrounding microclimate; and the following paragraphs of this summary document describe the results of some of those experiments that were conducted on various grassland species, many of which were growing naturally in pastures.



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Effects of Ocean Acidification on Fish Print E-mail
Written by Staff   
Saturday, 06 December 2014 18:10

As the air's CO2 content rises in response to ever-increasing anthropogenic CO2 emissions, and as more and more carbon dioxide therefore dissolves in the surface waters of the world's oceans, theoretical reasoning suggests the pH values of the planet's oceanic waters should be gradually dropping. The IPCC and others postulate that this chain of events, commonly referred to as ocean acidification, will cause great harm -- and possibly death -- to marine life in the decades and centuries to come. However, as ever more pertinent evidence accumulates, a much more optimistic viewpoint is emerging. This summary examines the topic of the potential impacts of ocean acidification on fish.



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Response of Fish to Ocean Warming Print E-mail
Written by Staff   
Tuesday, 11 November 2014 09:07

According to the IPCC, CO2-induced global warming will be net harmful to the world's marine species. This summary examines this hypothesis for various fish species, presenting evidence in opposition to the IPCC's point of view.



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Additional Grounds for Rejecting Biofuels Print E-mail
Written by Staff   
Friday, 31 October 2014 00:00

In July of 1987, as described by U.S. Department of Agriculture researchers Idso and Kimball (2001)[1], eight 30-cm-tall sour orange tree (Citrus aurantium L.) seedlings were planted directly into the ground at the Agricultural Research Service's U.S. Water Conservation Laboratory in Phoenix, Arizona, where they were enclosed in pairs within four clear-plastic-wall open-top chambers. Then, in November of that year, the two scientists began to continuously pump ambient air through two of the chambers via perforated plastic tubes that lay upon the ground beneath the trees, while through the other two chambers they began to pump air that was enriched with carbon dioxide to a concentration that was 300 ppm greater than that of the surrounding ambient air, which had an average CO2 concentration of 400 ppm. And thus was born one of the longest atmospheric CO2 experiments ever to be conducted anywhere in the world.



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The Global Medieval Warm Period Print E-mail
Written by Staff   
Thursday, 30 October 2014 00:00

Between the 10th and 14th centuries AD, earth's average global temperature may have been warmer than it is today, according to the analyses of Lamb (1977, 1984, 1988) and Grove (1988). The existence of this Medieval Warm Period was initially deduced from historical weather records and proxy climate data from England and Northern Europe. Interestingly, the warmer conditions associated with this interval of time are also known to have had a largely beneficial impact on earth's plant and animal life. In fact, the environmental conditions of this time period have been determined to have been so favorable that it was often referred to as the Little Climatic Optimum (Imbrie and Imbrie, 1979; Dean, 1994; Petersen, 1994; Serre-Bachet, 1994; Villalba, 1994)



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Growth Rates of Old Versus Young Forest Trees Print E-mail
Written by Staff   
Thursday, 25 September 2014 15:23

The planting and preservation of forests has long been acknowledged to be an effective and environmentally-friendly means for slowing climate-model-predicted CO2-induced global warming. This prescription for moderating potential climate change is based on two well-established and very straightforward facts: (1) the carbon trees use to construct their tissues comes from the air, and (2) its extraction from the atmosphere slows the rate of rise of the air's CO2 content.

Although simple enough that a child can understand it, this potential partial solution to the putative global warming problem has been under attack for several years by people who seek to address the issue solely on the basis of forced reductions in anthropogenic CO2 emissions (see Pearce, 1999[1]).



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Water Use Efficiency of Agricultural Species Print E-mail
Written by Staff   
Wednesday, 24 September 2014 17:03

In some cases, the water-use efficiency increases caused by atmospheric CO2 enrichment are spectacularly high. De Luis et al. (1999)[1], for example, demonstrated that alfalfa plants subjected to atmospheric CO2 concentrations of 700 ppm had water-use efficiencies that were 2.6 and 4.1 times greater than those displayed by control plants growing at 400 ppm CO2 under water-stressed and well-watered conditions, respectively. Also, when grown at an atmospheric CO2 concentration of 700 ppm, a 2.7-fold increase in water-use efficiency was reported by Malmstrom and Field (1997)[2] for oats infected with the barley yellow dwarf virus.



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Tropical Trees Print E-mail
Written by Staff   
Saturday, 13 September 2014 12:29

Going back in time to the final few years of the 20th century, Schaffer et al. (1997)[1] grew two mango ecotypes - one evolving from a warm, humid tropical climate, and the other from a cool, dry subtropical region - for 12 months in glasshouses maintained at either 350 or 700 ppm CO2 in order to determine the effects of atmospheric CO2 enrichment on the trees' growth and leaf mineral nutrient concentrations. In doing so, they found that in addition to the greater net carbon gains of the CO2-enriched trees, the elevated CO2 tended to decrease foliar concentrations of mineral nutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Cl, Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu and B) in both mango cultivars, most likely due to a dilution effect, since atmospheric CO2 enrichment increased leaf dry mass. But with respect to this latter finding, the scientists who conducted the study wrote that "given the slow rate at which global atmospheric CO2 concentration is increasing, it is possible that plants will adapt to this phenomenon over time with respect to mineral nutrition," as actually was found to be the case in a prior study of sour orange trees after 85 months of exposure to elevated CO2 (Penuelas et al., 1997).



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Global Temperatures and Biospheric Productivity Print E-mail
Written by Staff   
Thursday, 11 September 2014 00:00

Among the many climate-alarmist fears of CO2-induced global warming is the concern that the productivity of the biosphere will decline if global temperatures rise to the extent predicted by computer models. Yet, for many alarmists, the future is the present. Since 1980, for example, the Earth has weathered three of the warmest decades in the instrumental temperature record, a handful of intense and persistent El Niño events, large-scale deforestation, "unprecedented" forest fires, and the eruption of several volcanoes. Concurrently, the air's CO2 content increased by 16%, while human population grew by 55%. So just how bad is the biosphere suffering in response to these much-feared events? Or, is it even suffering at all?



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