Growth Response of Grassland Species to Elevated C02 When Water Stressed Print E-mail
Written by Staff   
Tuesday, 15 July 2014 17:38

As the air's CO2 content continues to rise, nearly all of earth's plants should exhibit increases in photosynthesis and biomass production; but climate alarmists periodically claim that water stress will negate these benefits. In reviewing the scientific literature of the ten-year period 1983-1994, however, Idso and Idso (1994) concluded that water stress will not negate the CO2-induced stimulation of plant productivity. In fact, they discovered that the CO2-induced percentage increase in plant productivity was nearly always greater under water-stressed conditions than it was when plants were well-watered. And seven years later, Poorter and Perez-Soba (2001)[1] conducted a similar literature review and came to the same conclusion. In this summary, therefore, we provide some background for this phenomenon and highlight some of the most impressive work that has subsequently been done in this area.



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Effects of Increased C02 on Herbaceous Plant Pests Print E-mail
Written by Staff   
Friday, 04 July 2014 07:54

Kerslake et al. (1998)[1] grew five-year-old heather (Calluna vulgaris) plants that they collected from a Scottish moor within open-top chambers maintained at atmospheric CO2 concentrations of 350 and 600 ppm, where at two different times during the study, larvae of the destructive winter moth Operophtera brumata - whose outbreaks periodically cause extensive damage to heather moorland - were allowed to feed upon current-year shoots. Interestingly, feeding upon the high-CO2-grown foliage did not affect larval growth rates, development or final pupal weights; neither was moth survivorship significantly altered. Hence, the three researchers concluded that their study provided "no evidence that increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations will affect the potential for outbreak of Operophtera brumata on this host." What it did show, however, was a significant CO2-induced increase in heather water use efficiency.



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Medieval Warm Period in Northern Europe Print E-mail
Written by Staff   
Wednesday, 25 June 2014 16:51

Was there really a global Medieval Warm Period? The IPCC used to acknowledge there was; but they have long since changed their view on the subject. Mounting evidence, however, suggests they were wrong to do so; and in this summary, both old and new important data from Northern Europe that support their original belief are described and discussed.



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Loblolly Pines Defy the Progressive Nitrogen Hypothesis Print E-mail
Written by Staff   
Thursday, 19 June 2014 16:00

As part of one of the most outstanding of such studies ever to be conducted, Finzi and Schlesinger (2003)1 measured and analyzed pool sizes and fluxes of inorganic and organic nitrogen in the forest floor and top 30 cm of mineral soil during the first five years of differential atmospheric CO2 treatment of a stand of initially 13-year-old loblolly pine trees at the Duke Forest FACE facility in the Piedmont region of North Carolina (USA), where half of the experimental plots were maintained at an atmospheric CO2 concentration approximately 200 ppm above ambient. Under these conditions, they found that the extra CO2 significantly increased the input of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) to the forest floor, as well as to the mineral soil in which the trees were growing.



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Response of Crustaceans to Ocean Warming Print E-mail
Written by Staff   
Friday, 13 June 2014 13:38

According to Storch et al. (2009)[1], "temperature is often invoked as the main determinant of distribution ranges and boundaries for marine and terrestrial species," and they note the larval stages of many marine species "are more vulnerable to thermal and osmotic stresses than adults." Consequently, they explored the rigidity of this temperature determinant of livable range for the Chilean kelp crab (Taliepus dentatus) in its most temperature-sensitive larval state.



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Energy Inefficiencies of Biofuels Print E-mail
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Wednesday, 04 June 2014 00:00

How efficient is it to produce energy from biofuels-is it more, less, or about the same as from traditional fossil fuels? This mini review summarizes what several scientists have learned when investigating this topic.



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Response of Marine Plants to Changes in Temperature Print E-mail
Written by Staff   
Friday, 30 May 2014 16:54

According to the IPCC, CO2-induced global warming will be net harmful to the world's marine species. One consequence of such harm, is a projected decline in ocean productivity. And in light of what the IPCC frequently refers to as the unprecedented modern rise in global temperature, it might reasonably be expected there should already be signs of a major negative impact on oceanic productivity. Yet the studies highlighted in this summary yield little evidence in support of the IPCC point of view.



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Biofuels: The Carbon Debt They Owe Print E-mail
Written by Staff   
Wednesday, 21 May 2014 00:00

In an article entitled "Land Clearing and the Biofuel Carbon Debt," Fargione et al. (2008)[1] explore what happens when non-agricultural lands are cleared for the growing of biofuel crops. In addition to the destruction of precious habitat needed to support what could be called "wild nature," this process releases large amounts of CO2 to the atmosphere due to the burning and microbial decomposition of organic carbon stored in plant biomass and soils. And this initial "carbon debt" must be repaid before there is any net reduction in CO2 emissions from the use of the biofuel crops grown on the newly-cleared land.



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Medieval Warm Period in Japan Print E-mail
Written by Staff   
Wednesday, 14 May 2014 16:20

The Medieval Warm Period (MWP) was a global climatic anomaly that encompassed a few centuries on either side of AD 1000, when temperatures in many parts of the world were even warmer than they are currently. The degree of warmth and associated changes in precipitation, however, sometimes varied from region to region, with the result that the MWP was expressed somewhat differently now and then in different parts of the world. How it manifested itself in Japan is the subject of this Summary.



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Response of Corals to Ocean Acidification Print E-mail
Written by Staff   
Friday, 09 May 2014 09:07

Over the years, a number of researchers have postulated that many of Earth's corals are destined to die, with some species even facing extinction, because of the hypothesized connection between the ongoing rise in the air's CO2 content and reduced rates of coral calcification (Buddemeier, 1994; Buddemeier and Fautin, 1996a,b; Gattuso et al., 1998; Buddemeier, 2001). Kleypas et al. (1999), for example, calculated calcification rates of tropical corals should already have declined by 6 to 11% or more since 1880, as a result of the concomitant increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration; and they predict reductions could reach 17 to 35% by 2100, as a result of expected increases in the air's CO2 content over the coming century. Likewise, Langdon et al. (2000) calculated a decrease in coral calcification rate of up to 40% between 1880 and 2065.



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Interactive Effects of C02 and Water Stress on the Growth of Woody Plant Species Print E-mail
Written by Staff   
Friday, 09 May 2014 09:02

It is widely acknowledged that as the CO2 content of the air continues to rise, nearly all of earth's plants will exhibit increases in photosynthesis and biomass production; but climate alarmists periodically proclaim that future water stress will negate these benefits of atmospheric CO2 enrichment. In reviewing much of the pertinent scientific literature of the ten-year period 1983-1994, however, Idso and Idso (1994) determined that water stress will generally not negate the CO2-induced stimulation of plant growth. In fact, they found that the CO2-induced percentage increase in plant productivity was nearly always greater under water-stressed conditions than it.



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Biofuels: Land and Water Concerns Print E-mail
Written by Staff   
Wednesday, 07 May 2014 00:00

Biofuels are fuels made from organic matter. They include liquid fuels such as ethanol, biodiesel, and methanol; gaseous fuels such as methane and carbon monoxide; and solid fuels such as biochar and the more traditional charcoal. Biofuels may have some environmental advantages over gasoline and diesel fuels, but they are more expensive to produce and cannot supply more than a small part of the world's total transportation energy needs. And because they compete with food crops and nature for land, water, and nutrients, expanding the use of biofuels could negatively affect human health and natural ecosystems.



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Medieval Warm Period in Upper North America Print E-mail
Written by Staff   
Wednesday, 16 April 2014 13:27

Climate alarmists claim that rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations due to the burning of fossil fuels, such as coal, gas and oil, have raised global air temperatures to their highest level in the past one to two millennia. And, therefore, investigating the possibility of a period of equal global warmth within the past one to two thousand years has become a high-priority enterprise; for if such a period could be shown to have existed, when the atmosphere's CO2 concentration was far less than it is today, there would be no compelling reason to attribute the warmth of our day to the CO2 released to the air by mankind since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution. Thus, in this review of the pertinent scientific literature, results of the search for such knowledge are presented for studies conducted within the borders of Canada and other regions north of the lower 48 states of the United States of America.



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Can Plants Evolve Fast Enough to Cope with Increased Drought? Print E-mail
Written by Staff   
Tuesday, 15 April 2014 22:59

Evolution is generally thought of as acting over long periods of time. So is there anything it can do to help plants cope with the rapid climate changes that the IPCC predicts will be caused by the ongoing rise in the air's CO2 content? In what follows, this question is carefully considered as it applies to the daunting environmental challenge of droughts, which climate alarmists contend will become more intense and occur more frequently throughout many parts of the world in the years and decades to come.



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Health Promoting Effects of Elevated C02 on Common Food Plants Print E-mail
Written by Staff   
Tuesday, 15 April 2014 20:49

How will the ongoing rise in the air's CO2 content alter the amounts of various health-promoting substances found in the plants that we commonly eat? Studies of the effects of atmospheric CO2 enrichment on the quality of the different plants that comprise our diets have typically lagged far behind studies designed to assess the effects of elevated CO2 on the quantity of plant production. Some noteworthy exceptions were the early studies of Barbale (1970) and Madsen (1971, 1975), who discovered that increasing the air's CO2 content produced a modest increase in the vitamin C concentration of tomatoes, while Kimball and Mitchell (1981) demonstrated that enriching the air with CO2 also stimulated the tomato plant's production of vitamin A. Then, a few years later, Tajiri (1985) found that a mere one-hour-per-day doubling of the air's CO2 concentration actually doubled the vitamin C contents of bean sprouts, and that it did so over a period of only seven days.



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Response of Corals to Ocean Acidification Print E-mail
Written by Staff   
Tuesday, 15 April 2014 20:38

It has been predicted that rates of coral calcification, as well as the photosynthetic rates of their symbiotic algae, will dramatically decline in response to what is typically referred to as an acidification of the world's oceans, as the atmosphere's CO2 concentration continues to rise in the years, decades, and centuries to come. As ever more pertinent evidence accumulates, however, the true story appears to be just the opposite.  This summary examines such evidence obtained from field-based studies conducted in the natural ocean.



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Effects of Ocean Acidification and Warming on Marine Echinoderms Print E-mail
Written by Staff   
Wednesday, 19 March 2014 20:36

Most of the ocean acidification research conducted to date has focused solely on the biological impacts of declining seawater pH. Few studies have investigated the interactive effects of ocean acidification and temperature. This summary examines what has been learned in such studies of echinoderms, highlighting several studies that challenge the alarming and negative projections of the IPCC on the matter.



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Effects of Elevated C02 on Soil Carbon Sequestration Print E-mail
Written by Staff   
Wednesday, 12 March 2014 16:11

It is important to note at the outset that atmospheric CO2 enrichment typically has but a small effect on the decomposition rates of senesced plant materials present in soils; yet this fact often leads to significantly greater soil carbon sequestration, as demonstrated by De Angelis et al. (2000), who reported a 4% reduction in the decomposition rate of leaf litter beneath stands of 30-year-old Mediterranean forest species enriched with air of 710 ppm CO2, and who thus concluded that "if this effect is coupled to an increase in primary production [which nearly always occurs in response to elevated CO2] there will be a net rise of C-storage in the soils of forest ecosystems."



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Biospheric Productivity in South America Print E-mail
Written by Staff   
Thursday, 06 March 2014 18:04

How will the terrestrial vegetation of South America respond to global warming and atmospheric CO2 enrichment? Climate alarmists suggest there will be widespread declines in both ecosystem size and productivity. But are these predictions correct? Given the fact that over the past century the Earth has experienced what alarmists refer to as unprecedented rises in both atmospheric temperature and CO2 concentration relative to the past two thousand years and several million years, respectively, plants should already be responding to the changes in these two environmental parameters. And what has that response been? In this summary we consider this question as it applies to locations in South America.



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Killing Wildlife in the Name of Climate Change Print E-mail
Written by Robert Bryce   
Saturday, 01 March 2014 09:19

The facts show that federally subsidized efforts that are being undertaken to, in theory, address climate change, are damaging America’s wildlife. Furthermore, those same efforts have, for years, been allowing an entire industry to avoid federal prosecution under some of America’s oldest wildlife laws.



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